China's COVID-19 vaccine 'safe' in world's first completed human trial

China’s coronavirus vaccine is deemed ‘safe’ and triggers an immune response in world’s first completed human trial of 108 volunteers – but it may not ‘neutralize’ infection, expert says

  • Chinese CDCs and universities tested a candidate vaccine in 108 people
  • With results published Friday, it’s the first human trial to be completed in the world
  • It was found safe after no serious side effects were seen in any of the volunteers, though some had mild reactions, such as fever, pain and muscle aches 
  • Immune responses were seen in most patients, though more research is needed to determine if its enough to prevent infection 
  • A US vaccine expert told DailyMail.com he’s concerned, however, that the Chinese shot didn’t trigger enough ‘neutralizing’ antibodies to block the virus
  • Here’s how to help people impacted by Covid-19

A coronavirus vaccine trialled in 108 healthy volunteers in China safely triggered an immune response in the participants, a new study reveals. 

Antibody production seen in the patients is a good sign that the vaccine may protect them from infection, but it’s too soon to say for sure. 

The Chinese vaccine was the very first shot to enter clinical trials earlier this year – months ahead of human testing for the UK’s lead candidate jab – made by Oxford University – or the American lead-contender, made by biotech Moderna. 

Most of the people dosed with the vaccine had immune responses, although their levels of antibodies thought to neutralize the virus were relatively low. Researchers saw a stronger ramp-up of other immune compounds, called T-cells, that might also help fight the infection off. 

There were side effects – primarily pain, muscle aches and fever – but they subsided within 28 days, and no serious or dangerous side effects were reported. 

Promising results from the completed first human trial China’s Ad5 coronavirus vaccine place it at the front of the global race for a shot, though only by a slim margin, an expert told DailyMail.com. 

Chinese researchers have become the first to complete a human trial for a coronavirus vaccine, which was safe and triggered an immune response in participants, but a US expert worries the shot didn’t produce enough ‘neutralizing’ antibodies to block infection (file) 

The study, conducted by the collaborating universities and local CDC’s in China, recruited 108 patients ranging in age from 18 to 60, and split them into three groups the received, respectively, low, middle and high doses of the vaccine 

At the study’s start, none of the patients – who had never been infected with coronavirus – had neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. 

Within two weeks, researchers started to see signs that their levels of antibodies were ramping up ‘moderately,’ and peaked 28 days after the volunteers got their shots, according to the study published Friday in The Lancet.

Levels of neutralizing antibodies – a type of immune cell that binds to a virus and may be able to completely block infection – were more than twice as high among the participants who got the high dose shot, compared to those given the low dose.  

While any increase in neutralizing antibodies was a significant gain over the subjects’ starting levels (zero), Dr Peter Hotez, a vaccine expert at Baylor College of Medicine in Texas, was unimpressed with the levels produced in the trial participants. 

‘The one thing not we’re not seeing is a really high neutralizing antibody titer,’ he told DailyMail.com. 

‘The question is whether we’re going to need that and whether these vaccines will be adequate to stimulate an immune response.’ 

Patients in the trial did have more robust increases in their levels of T cells, immune cells that perform a search and destroy function, rather than the blocking work done by neutralizing antibodies. 

More studies will be needed to determine whether the vaccine can protect against infection in practice. 

Encouragingly, none of the 108 patients had serious side effects. 

More than 80 percent did have some side effects, but these were mostly mild or moderate, like muscle aches, fever and pain. Most subsided within a couple of weeks, and almost all resolved by the end of the study. 

Moderna is working closely with the NIH to develop its vaccine, and is leading the US race 

The US government has placed an order for 300 million doses of AstraZeneca’s shot, developed with Oxford University 

‘That’s pretty good,’ Dr Hotez says. 

Side effect profiles may be particularly important to getting people to get vaccinated against coronavirus once one is available. 

A Reuters poll published Thursday found that a quarter of Americans were not very or not at all interested in getting a vaccine for the virus that has infected more than 1.6 million people in the US. 

Many of them said they were concerned the vaccine would be riskier than the disease itself because development is moving so fast. 

So far, the US government is supporting the development of 14 candidate vaccinations through its Operation Speed initiative. 

It’s unclear if the US is coordinating with the Chinese vaccine developers. 

In the US and UK, vaccines from Moderna and Oxford University (collaborating with AstaZeneca) are in human trials, and have shown promising early results. 

China’s completed trial puts it ahead – but not by much, says Dr Hotez. He says that all of the vaccines will need to go through large, Phase III trials before they become available, bringing their timelines close together.  

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The cholera outbreak in a Victorian asylum that anticipated the coronavirus crisis in care homes

In 1849, a cholera epidemic that was sweeping through Britain reached West Riding Asylum in Wakefield, West Yorkshire. The deadly disease soon spread through the wards. Searching for the source of the outbreak, the consulting physician eventually settled on an individual who had been admitted while ill. The doctor described this unfortunate patient as the “unconscious messenger of death”.

Over a century and a half later, a care-home owner in Devon—alarmed by the fact that local care homes could admit residents with COVID-19—expressed his fears in a strikingly similar way. In early April 2020, the government issued guidelines that permitted taking in new residents even if sick. This, the care-home owner argued, would be “tantamount to importing death”.

Care homes are the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Compared to all other settings, they have seen the biggest relative increase in deaths since the start of the outbreak. Most of the vast asylums of the Victorian era closed in the 20th century, as attitudes to treating mental health changed. Yet there are haunting parallels to be seen. Responses to, and experiences of, an outbreak of disease at one of these asylums back in the 19th century are disturbingly resonant today.

Cholera, an acute diarrhoeal disease, claimed the lives of more than 100 patients at West Riding Asylum in 1849. Such was the scale of the tragedy that the consulting physician, Thomas Giordani Wright, was commissioned by the asylum’s regulators to investigate and account for this disaster. The result, a report published in 1850, allows us to reconstruct the story of the cholera outbreak in minute detail. It is a story which foreshadows our own.

Cholera grips the asylum

The 19th century witnessed a huge expansion in the number of asylums in England.

In 1808, the British government passed legislation that allowed counties to collect and spend taxes on building asylums for those unable to pay for private treatment for mental illness. While most counties didn’t begin construction until they were forced to by further legislation in 1845. Yorkshire was quick off the mark. West Riding Asylum opened its doors in November 1818, initially with a view to accommodating 150 patients. By the middle of the century, extensions and a second building meant that more than 500 patients filled its wards.

Global cholera pandemics were a repeated problem throughout the 19th century. When the disease hit Britain in the autumn of 1848, Yorkshire was initially spared. But by September 1849, it had reached Wakefield. In his report, Wright conjures an image of the institution besieged, with “the spread of the pestilence all around the asylum”.

Some of those who had been attached to the asylum for a long time, like Wright himself, might have taken confidence from the fact it had escaped disaster during the previous cholera pandemic to hit England, in 1832. In 1849, sadly, it would not be so lucky.

In his report, Wright sought to understand how the disease had infiltrated the institution. He was doing so a few years before John Snow’s discovery that cholera was waterborne. Yet an inspection of both the drainage and ventilation did take place at West Riding Asylum; both were given a clean bill of health. Indeed, the inspectors—Messrs West and Dawson—were left to conclude that “the visitation, fatal as it has been to many, must be considered either as the immediate infliction of Divine Providence, or as dependent on causes of which nothing as yet is known”.

Wright looked elsewhere for causes. And in spite of his admission that “the laws of contamination are, in fact, little known”, he set his sights on one Elizabeth Fenton—his “unconscious messenger of death”.

The hunt for ‘patient zero’ begins

Elizabeth Fenton, a person with epilepsy, had been admitted to West Riding Asylum on 17 September 1849. She came from the nearby Gomersal Workhouse, where she had been for the past six years after her husband, a stonemason, abandoned her and their two children. Although her transfer had been recommended some weeks earlier, when the local official called at the workhouse to take her to the asylum, it took people at the workhouse by surprise.

Strokes of ill luck might, in part, explain the disastrous chain of events which followed. Two residents at the Gomersal Workhouse had died of cholera the night before Fenton was transferred; one of them normally slept in the same room as her. Yet authorities may have been lulled into a false sense of security by the fact that Fenton had not had direct contact with these residents before her transfer. She had suffered an unusually violent seizure that week, and so had spent most of her last nights in the workhouse restrained in a chair in another room. And the day before her transfer, she had been given a laxative to help relieve constipation. An early warning sign of cholera infection, diarrhoea, was thus concealed.

By the evening of her first day in the asylum, Fenton had developed symptoms. She was isolated immediately, as it had become clear that an outbreak was underway in Gomersal Workhouse. Her room was locked, and access restricted to a select few. But within a week, four more women had fallen ill. From that point on, the disease spread like wildfire through the female as well as male patient populations of the asylum.

Since the male cases were known not to have had any direct contact with any of the female cases, and the original four women were not even thought to have seen Fenton, Wright was stumped to explain whether the mode of transmission was “gaseous or solid, material or immaterial, vegetable or animal, magnetic or electrical”.

But he was firm in his conclusion that “infection was in some way brought into the asylum by that patient”. He cinched his argument by referring back to the 1832 pandemic, which the asylum had escaped unscathed. The only difference, he argued, between the two contexts was that no new patients from infected districts had been admitted in 1832, whereas in 1849, they had: Fenton. Case closed.

Yet Wright pursued this line of investigation further, with prosecutorial zeal, by turning his attention to Gomersal Workhouse. Fenton had brought the disease from Gomersal to West Riding Asylum—but how, in the first place, had it arrived at Gomersal?

From the medical officer at the workhouse, Wright learned that on 6 September “a dirty Irish woman, and her four children, were brought into the workhouse”. Showing signs of cholera, they had been taken to the workhouse hospital, where the mother had died just hours after arrival. One of her children died “a day or two after”; the exact timing was not thought worth recording. And just a day before Fenton was transferred to the asylum, two other women at the workhouse died.

As we know all too well from COVID-19, Aids and other recent pandemics, the hunt for the first person to fall ill—known as “patient zero”—collides with other vectors of stigmatisation. In the case of COVID-19, this has been clear above all in the horrifying rise in anti-Asian racism and xenophobia worldwide.

By 1849, the arrival in England of hundreds of thousands of Irish displaced by the Great Famine had contributed to wider anti-Irish sentiment, cementing a prejudicial association with poverty, dirt and disease. Forced into desperate living conditions, including dog kennels and cellars, this was an association which drew vicious strength from the staggeringly high death rates among the Irish during times of epidemic disease. As well as being epidemiologically unhelpful, Wright’s explicit identification of a local Irish patient zero fed into growing anti-Irish racism and a representation of the Irish as carriers, rather than fellow sufferers, of the disease.

The human cost rises

With cholera loose in the institution, the medical officers and attendants at West Riding Asylum tried to fight it using the full arsenal at their disposal: removal of patients to a separate cholera ward; improvements in diet—including “extra allowances of tea and brandy for supper”; fumigation of wards; and laundering of all bed sheets and clothes.

But as in the current pandemic, there was no cure, no vaccine. By the end of the year, more than 100 residents had died of cholera. Nineteen had died in just a single day towards the end of October.

In what Wright evidently considered to be a small mercy, the patients “generally did not appear to be much affected by fear, nor were they aware of the extent of the mortality”. But just as in today’s care homes, for the staff of the institution, it was traumatic. “It was a period of awful emergency, and the consternation of all was increased by the fearful mystery of the pestilence, the rapidity of its attack, without previous symptom or warning, and the little more than failure of every effort, to mitigate its course, or avert its progress.”

Amid this horror, it is unsurprising—particularly, unhappily, to us now—that residents were not the only fatalities. On November 4 1849, Mrs Reynolds, the chief nurse of the ward set up to tend to cholera cases, died of the disease.

In a separate report in November 1849, the director of the asylum quoted Reynolds as saying: “If I should die, I shall have the satisfaction on my death bed of knowing that I have done my duty.” Wright later wrote movingly of “her heroic and unremitting devotion to her duties” and “her kindness and humanity”.

Reynolds was not alone in being held up for praise. In 1851, the director of the asylum looked back on the service of all staff in these harrowing months “with gratitude and admiration”. And while noting that “no pecuniary recompense can adequately remunerate such services”, he drew attention to the princely sum of £264 which had been distributed among staff by the visiting justices, and a further—unspecified but “very large”—sum disbursed by a visiting magistrate (there to oversee Wright’s investigation) in a private capacity.

There is a poignant coda to this story, however. In contrast to the “substantial tokens of public approbation” the surviving officers and attendants had received, Wright used his report to draw attention to the sad inadequacy of Reynolds’s final resting place: a grave “without a mark to record her fate”. He pleaded with the magistrates and medical officers to make contributions so that her life and service could also be properly remembered.

Were lessons learnt?

Wright rounded off his report with a “lessons learnt” section—a genre with which we are likely to become all too familiar in the coming months and years.

While noting that changes to diet and fumigation appeared to bear some fruit, the lesson Wright was desperate to hammer home was the importance of “the precaution of not admitting into the asylum fresh patients from infected districts”. In that respect, his advice was much stricter than that issued by the Board of Health, the body charged with the control of epidemic disease, whose confident assurances—he suggested—had influenced people “to disregard all risk of communication”.

Wright concluded: “We have been fatally taught, that it is most important to use every possible vigilance to avert the approach of cholera; for, if it once find an entrance, no human resources are of much avail, to mitigate its intensity or abate its ravages.”

The colossal asylums of the 19th century may no longer be with us, but the parallels haunt us still. The risk to care homes was clear early in the contemporary crisis, according to chief scientific adviser Sir Patrick Vallance. And the vulnerability of institutionalised populations was not only foreseeable; doctors during the 1849 cholera outbreak tried to pass down lessons to future generations.

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Drug for bone marrow cancer used in experimental COVID-19 treatment

Clinical trial underway to test if drug for rare bone marrow cancer will keep the sickest coronavirus patients off of ventilators by stopping the virus from copying itself

  • Selinexor, which is made by Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc, is currently approved treat multiple myeloma, a cancer that forms in white blood cells
  • Researchers say the drug blocks a protein that allows the virus to multiply in our cells and plays a role in the inflammatory response 
  • The goal of the trial is to see if the most critically ill coronavirus patients can be kept off of ventilators
  • More than 230 patients have been enrolled in the study across 40 hospitals in the US, Europe and Israel 
  • Here’s how to help people impacted by Covid-19

A clinical trial is underway to test if a drug for a rare bone marrow cancer works as an experimental coronavirus treatment. 

Selinexor, known by its brand name Xpovio, is made by Massachusetts-based Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc and is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat multiple myeloma, a cancer that forms in white blood cells.

Researchers say the medication prevents the virus from replicating, or multiplying, in patients’ cells.

According to Karyopharm, the goal of the trial is to see if a low dose of the drug can keep the most critically ill patients off of ventilators.  

Selinexor (pictured) is currently approved treat multiple myeloma. Researchers say the drug blocks a protein that allows the virus to multiply in our cells and plays a role in the inflammatory response

The goal of the trial is to see if the most critically ill coronavirus patients can be kept off of ventilators. Pictured: A COVID-19 patient is attached to a ventilator in the emergency room at St Joseph’s Hospital in Yonkers, NY, April 20

Selinexor blocks the protein XPO1, which plays a role in replicating the virus throughout the body and in the body’s inflammatory response.

The team believes the drug will also help reduce the over-production of cytokines, known as a cytokine storm.

This occurs when the body attacks its own cells and tissues instead of just fighting off the virus.  

More than 230 patients have been enrolled in the second phase of the study, which is taking place in 40 hospitals across the US, Europe and Israel.  

Researchers compared patients taking 20mg of selinexor orally three times a week for two weeks to patients taking a placebo  

‘We’re encouraged by what we are seeing,’ Karyopharm CEO Dr Michael Kauffman told NBC Boston.

‘We haven’t seen any safety issues that we are worried about. So it seems to be a tolerated therapy, which is important.’

Selinexor isn’t the only cancer drug being used as an experimental treatment for COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus.

Chimerix, a company based in North Carolina is planning a clinical trial to test if  drug derived from the blood thinner heparin for a form of leukemia reduces bleeding and inflammation in coronavirus patients.

Additionally, a clinical trial is underway at Stanford Medicine to see if a drug called interferon-lambda – used to treat other viruses, and cancer – can keep people who have recently tested positive for coronavirus out of the hospital.  

‘We all need to work as hard as we possibly can and as fast as we can to study all different approaches and try to knock this thing on its head so we can help people recover and can move on,’ Kauffman told NBC Boston. 

In the US, there are currently more than 1.4 million confirmed cases of the virus and more than 85,000 deaths. 

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Coronavirus: Big tobacco sees an opportunity in the pandemic

Over the last few months, as COVID-19 has spread around the world, big tobacco has exploited the pandemic to push its branding and products. The industry never misses a trick when it comes to exploiting the chaos of international crises, including wars. The current pandemic is no exception.

The strategy is to use the pandemic to try and shift their image from vilified industry to trusted health partner. The tactics they have employed to achieve this are shameless, even for an industry as controversial as tobacco. There are examples of tobacco companies offering assistance in the form of ventilators, gels, PPE and even cash. They are even involved in trying to develop a vaccine. While there is no doubt that these have been gratefully received by authorities struggling with a chronic lack of resources, the industry has been up to other tricks, too. And one British FTSE 100 company is proving particularly adept.

In March, as many governments began to lock down their populations, British American Tobacco (BAT) began co-opting universal health messages. These were then placed on branded face masks, which were subsequently handed out to social media influencers for free.

Instagram remains one of the key marketing platforms for the industry. In 2019, BAT paid Instagram influencers to promote glo, its heated tobacco device, among other products. One of the hashtags used was #todayiwill.

BAT’s Instagram campaign ran into trouble, though. In December 2019, in a landmark decision, the UK Advertising Standards Authority, ruled against BAT and three other firms for promoting an e-cigarette, Vype, on Instagram, after a complaint by ASH, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids and STOP, of which the University of Bath is a partner. Later that month, under pressure to act, Facebook and Instagram announced that “branded content that promotes goods such as vaping, tobacco products and weapons will not be allowed”.

Undaunted, BAT appeared to use the social media platform as a COVID-19 marketing tool, especially in countries where oversight was likely to be less stringent. BAT simply changed the #todayiwill hashtag to #todayIwillstayhome, to reflect the messaging from governments for people to stay at home. Evidence uncovered by the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, which has been tracking BAT’s activities, found that in Kazakhstan among other countries, BAT provided influencers with “today I will stay home” glo masks. Other hashtags used included #glomask.

The company used other COVID-19 hashtags, too. An influencer appeared on one BAT Vype account in Spain, using #frenalacurva, the Spanish for “flatten the curve”. BAT employed similar tactics in Latin America and Europe. This meant if you were searching on Instagram for these government messages, you would come across BAT’s subliminal marketing.

Days before the glo-branded masks started appearing on social media and right in the middle of the pandemic, BAT launched a glossy rebranding exercise unveiling a new slogan “For a Better Tomorrow”. The company replaced its old tired leaf logo with bright rainbow colours.

‘New adults’, new market

BAT’s board told investors that its redefined mission was now “stimulating the senses of a new adult generation”. This essentially means entrapping a new generation of young people into nicotine addiction, from vaping, heated tobacco products to cigarettes.

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Steep decline in organ transplants amid COVID-19 outbreak

France and the United States, two countries hit hard by the novel coronavirus, have experienced a tremendous reduction in the number of organ donations and solid organ (kidney, liver, heart, and lung) transplant procedures since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new study. By early April, transplant centers in both countries were conducting far fewer deceased donor transplants compared to just one month earlier, with the number of procedures dropping by 91 percent in France and 50 percent in the United States.

The international team of transplant scientists, including experts from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Paris Transplant Group, attribute much of the overall decline to a steep reduction in the number of kidney transplants specifically. However, they also reported a substantial drop in the number of heart, lung and liver transplants. The analysis was published today in The Lancet.

“Our findings point to the far-reaching and severe ripple effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on health care, including life-saving organ transplants,” said study co-author Peter Reese, MD, MSCE, an associate professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at Penn. “Organs from deceased donors represent a time-limited opportunity, as they must be procured and used rapidly. However, in order to protect the safety of their patients, centers must now carefully vet all donors to ensure there is minimal risk of COVID-19.”

The steep reduction in organ donations and transplant procedures exacerbates the worldwide shortage of transplantable organs and need for transplants. In the United States, there are more than 112,000 people on the national transplant waiting list. While the number of living donor kidney and liver transplants continues to increase, the vast majority of organ transplant procedures involve organs from deceased donors. Of the nearly 40,000 transplants performed in the United States in 2019, more than 32,000 involved organs from deceased donors.

Many transplant centers, including the Penn Transplant Institute (PTI), continue to perform many life-saving organ transplants during the pandemic, but the outbreak has posed unique challenges for both organ procurement and transplantation. A number of centers nationwide, including the PTI, are not using organs from deceased donors with evidence of recent infection or exposure.

To quantify the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on organ donation and transplantation, investigators analyzed validated national data from three federal agencies, including the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), to study trends in France and the United States.

The team observed a strong link between the surge of COVID-19 infections and significant decline in donated organs and overall solid organ transplants. In the United States, the number of recovered organs dropped from more than 110 a day on March 6 to fewer than 60 per day on April 5, investigators found. During the same timeframe, the number of transplanted kidneys dropped from nearly 65 a day to about 35 per day. Researchers also observed that regions with fewer COVID-19 cases, or limited exposure to the disease, also experienced a significant reduction in transplant rates—suggesting a global and nationwide effect beyond the local infection prevalence.

The investigators hypothesize that France may have experienced a larger drop in transplants because of a coordinated national effort to reduce clinical and commercial activity. Whereas, in the United States, individual states had discretion to impose restrictions and hospital practice may have varied to a greater degree.

“These international comparisons of transplant activity will be very important as the COVID-19 pandemic evolves,” said co-author Alexandre Loupy, MD, Ph.D., a nephrologist at the Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation at Necker Hospital in Paris and Head of the Paris Transplant Group. “Some transplant systems may develop best practices to support organ procurement and transplant that can be shared across borders. We have a lot of work ahead to restore our invaluable infrastructure of donation and transplant surgery.”

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The role of miRNAs in glioblastoma multiforme

Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most malignant tumors of the central nervous system. It is characterized by the fast growth and high malignancy. Although surgery combined with radiation therapy and chemotherapy has been widely used for the treatment of glioblastoma, the prognosis is still very poor. Furthermore, chemoresistance and radioresistance are the typical hallmarks of the recurrent glioblastoma. Thus, it is necessary to identify all the potential therapeutic targets for glioblastoma and to clarify its underlying mechanism.

In recent years, attention has been paid to the role of microRNAs in the development, diagnosis, and prognosis of gliomas. Thus, the team of researchers from the Cancer Hospital of China Medical University revealed that miR-129-5p, and ZFP36L1 gene were functionally involved in the hallmarks glioblastoma. This includes the tumor proliferation, migration, and tumor colony-forming abilities.

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Katie Maloney Stuns in ‘Pump Rules’ Reunion Dress After 20-Lb Weight Loss

All dressed up with a reunion to (virtually) attend! Katie Maloney showed off her slimmer figure in her Vanderpump Rules season 8 reunion dress.

“Season 8 Reunion Look! We may have been socially distant but it was still 🔥🔥🔥!” the 33-year-old captioned a photo of herself in front of the stairs at her Los Angeles home on Tuesday, May 5, via Instagram.

Fans were quick to flood the comment section with compliments for Maloney, who opened up about tweaking her diet last month.

“I’ve lost a little over 20 pounds. It feels good,” the reality TV personality explained on April 19, noting that she went to the doctor after she was struggling to shed pounds with her current diet. “I think it’s really important to also check up on your health because even though it wasn’t a thyroid thing, I did discover that my glucose levels were pretty high and that could’ve led to some maybe pre-diabetic problems. From there, I met a really great nutritionist who helped me understand how to eat for my metabolism, especially with being insulin resistant or insulin-sensitive.”

https://www.instagram.com/p/B_z9XMCJEXt/

Season 8 Reunion Look! We may have been socially distant but it was still 🔥🔥🔥! Tap for outfit details.

A post shared byKatie Maloney-Schwartz (@musickillskate) on

Maloney added that she now has a “great understanding on nutrition” and “what kinds of food” she should and shouldn’t be eating.

“I’m not dieting,” she explained. “But I just have a wealth of knowledge on what kind of foods to be eating.”

The former SURver, who has had to deal with body-shaming on recent seasons of Vanderpump Rules, has been open about her body image struggles in the past.

“For the last 3 years I let MY BODY become a topic of conversation,” she wrote in March 2019 via Instagram. “I say ‘let’ because I didn’t have the courage or self love [to] argue it. FOR 3 YEARS. I’m not perfect. I know who I am. But I’m not a weak bitch.”

The day before Maloney debuted her reunion look, Andy Cohen confirmed that the season 8 special taped via Zoom on Thursday, April 30.

“It was a great reunion,” he dished on SiriusXM’s Radio Andy on Monday, May 4. “Really good.”

Vanderpump Rules airs on Bravo Tuesdays at 9 p.m. ET.

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Lymphatic vessels in mice and humans: Alike yet different

In an international collaboration, researchers from Uppsala University have mapped the lymph node lymphatic vessels in mice and humans down to the level of individual cells. The results may eventually help scientists to discover new methods for strengthening the immune system against viruses and cancer. Their work has been published in the journal Frontiers of Cardiovascular Research.

The unique microenvironment of the lymph nodes plays an important role in maintaining an efficient immune system. When we have an infection, the lymph nodes swell and release activated white blood cells into the body through the lymphatic vessels. It is important to understand how these vessels work if we are to develop new drugs to improve the immune system; for example, new vaccines.

Previous research has shown that the specialized cells that make the lymphatic vessels, known as lymphatic endothelial cells, both communicate with white blood cells and actively assist in regulating the immune system. Until now, however, researchers have only understood the importance of a few of the genes that control the versatility of these cells.

Our immune system is involved in a range of different diseases, including chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, atherosclerosis and cancer. In order to study the role of the immune system in disease mechanisms, many scientists use model systems, including mice.

“By using model systems, we researchers can test the function of various genes and evaluate treatment strategies, all of which provides us with valuable knowledge. However, in order to translate findings from mouse models to humans we need a better understanding of the similarities and differences between the signaling pathways and genes that control cell function in the different species,” explains Maria Ulvmar, a researcher who led the study at Uppsala University’s Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.

The research teams that conducted the study analyzed the activity of genes in individual cells in mice and humans. Based on the gene activity profiles, they were able to demonstrate that both species have five distinct and similar groups of lymphatic endothelial cells in the lymph nodes, two of which were previously unknown. This discovery, complements previous published analysis of the lymphatic vessels in the lymph nodes and will help the scientific understanding of how immune cells enter and leave the lymph nodes and how their activity is regulated.

The results support the proposition that basic vessel functionality is the same in mice and humans. At the same time, researchers noted crucial differences in gene activity between the two species. This discovery is important for future research.

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