Three-way strategy employed by SARS-CoV-2 during infection

A new study exposes how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tampers with the host cell's machinery to outsmart the immune system.

The SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Worldwide the number of infected cases so far is over 160 million. While many have recovered, over 3.34 million people have lost their lives.

So how does the virus invade the human cell at the molecular level and succeed in causing the disease?

Although different SARS-CoV-2 proteins are implicated in the attack on the host cell, a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cellular gene expression is lacking.

The study, published in the journal Nature, reveals a multi-pronged strategy that the virus employs to ensure its quick and efficient replication while evading the immune system. The study elucidated how the virus can quickly, in a matter of hours, take over the cell's protein-making machinery and parallelly neutralize the cell's antiviral signaling, thus delaying and muddling the immune response.

Microscopic images of cultured human lung cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Blue (left) – staining of the cells’ nuclei; Green (center) – SARS-CoV-2 staining; Cyan (right) – cells infected with SARS-CoV-2

Research groups of Dr. Noam Stern-Ginossar at the Weizmann Institute of Science and Dr. Nir Paran and Dr. Tomer Israely of the Israel Institute for Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, focused on this understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the cellular level occurring when SARS-CoV-2 invades.

In this study, the researchers also identified the viral proteins involved in the process of host expression shutoff by SARS-CoV-2. This could spell new opportunities for developing effective COVID-19 treatments, the researchers mention.

"Most of the research that has addressed this issue so far concentrated on specific viral proteins and characterized their functions. Yet not enough is known today about what is actually going on in the infected cells themselves," says Stern-Ginossar, of the Molecular Genetics Department. "So we infected cells with the virus and proceeded to assess how infection affects important biochemical processes in the cell, such as gene expression and protein synthesis."

Antiviral genes are expressed in the cells when the virus attacks, alerting neighboring cells and activating the immune system. It is both virus and host that compete to win against each other and especially overtake ribosomes, the cellular factories responsible for making protein, which the virus lacks.

Illustration of the proposed three-way strategy employed by SARS-CoV-2 during infection. 1 – Global reduction in translation; 2 – Degradation of cellular messenger RNA; 3 – Inhibition of nuclear export of messenger RNA

The researchers identified how SARS-CoV-2 interferes with the expression of cellular genes in infected cells using unbiased measurements of translation and RNA expression. As a result, they found the virus relies on three distinct but complementary strategies: (1) reduction in translation, (2) degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA), (3) inhibition of nuclear export of messenger RNA (mRNA).

The virus decreases the cell's capacity to translate genes to proteins as a result of the global reduction in translation. Consequently, fewer proteins are synthesized. Interestingly, the study also indicated that the viral transcripts are not preferentially translated.

Instead, the researchers found that the infection leads to accelerated degradation of cytosolic cellular mRNAs (which is likely mediated by NSP1,) which facilitates the viral takeover of the mRNA pool in infected cells. The researchers noted that an important aspect of the host shutoff is the ability of the virus to hamper the translation of cellular transcripts while recruiting the ribosome to its transcripts.

They also revealed that the translation of important transcripts whose expression is induced in response to infection, including innate immune genes, is impaired. The researchers demonstrated that this impairment is likely mediated by inhibition of nuclear mRNA export, preventing the newly transcribed cellular mRNAs from accessing ribosomes.

"By employing this three-way strategy, which appears to be unique to SARS-CoV-2, the virus can efficiently execute what we call 'host shutoff' – where the virus takes over the cell's protein-synthesis capacity," Stern-Ginossar explains. "In this way, messages from important antiviral genes, which the cell rushes to produce upon infection, do not make it to the factory floor to be translated into active proteins, resulting in the delayed immune response we are seeing in the clinic."

The researchers combined RNA sequencing, ribosome profiling, and metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNA to comprehensively analyze how SARS-CoV-2 shuts down cellular protein synthesis.

As with SARS-CoV NSP1, this study indicates that SARS-CoV-2 NSP1 inhibits host protein translation, via a multi-pronged cellular mechanism.

"Our results support a model in which NSP1 acts as a strong inhibitor of translation and at the same time leads to accelerated degradation of cellular but not of viral mRNAs, thus providing the means for viral mRNA to quickly dominate the mRNA pool."

This study looks closely at how the infected cells divert their translation towards viral mRNAs. Overall, our results uncover the multi-pronged strategy employed by SARS-CoV-2 to commandeer the translation machinery and to suppress host defenses, the researchers write.

Source:
  • The triple threat of coronavirus, https://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/life-sciences/triple-threat-coronavirus
Journal reference:
  • Finkel, Y., Gluck, A., Nachshon, A. et al. SARS-CoV-2 uses a multi-pronged strategy to impede host protein synthesis. Nature (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03610-3

Posted in: Medical Research News | Disease/Infection News

Tags: Cell, Coronavirus, Coronavirus Disease COVID-19, Gene, Gene Expression, Genes, Genetics, Immune Response, Immune System, Pandemic, Protein, Protein Synthesis, Research, Respiratory, Ribosome, RNA, RNA Sequencing, SARS, SARS-CoV-2, Severe Acute Respiratory, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Syndrome, Translation, Virus

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Dr. Ramya Dwivedi

Ramya has a Ph.D. in Biotechnology from the National Chemical Laboratories (CSIR-NCL), in Pune. Her work consisted of functionalizing nanoparticles with different molecules of biological interest, studying the reaction system and establishing useful applications.

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Amid disaster in India, coronavirus restrictions easing in US, Europe

Americans help India cope with its crushing COVID crisis

Mount Sinai medical system’s Dr. Ash Tewari and his team send ventilators and oxygen equipment to save lives

TALLAHASSEE, Fla. – Air travel in the U.S. hit its highest mark since COVID-19 took hold more than 13 months ago, while European Union officials are proposing to ease restrictions on visitors to the continent as the vaccine sends new cases and deaths tumbling in more affluent countries.

The improving picture in many places contrasts with the worsening disaster in India.

In the U.S., the average number of new cases per day fell below 50,000 for the first time since October. And nearly 1.67 million people were screened at U.S. airport checkpoints on Sunday, according to the Transportation Security Administration, the highest number since mid-March of last year.

‘HORRIBLE’ WEEKS AHEAD AS INDIA’S COVID-19 CRISIS WORSENS

Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis signed legislation giving him sweeping powers to invalidate local emergency measures put in place during the outbreak. While the law doesn’t go into effect until July, the Republican governor said he will issue an executive order to more quickly get rid of local mask mandates.

“I think this creates a structure that’s going to be a little bit more respectful, I think, of people’s businesses, jobs, schools and personal freedom,” he said.

May 3, 2021: Relatives of a person who died of COVID-19 mourn outside a field hospital in Mumbai, India.
((AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool))

Las Vegas is bustling again after casino capacity limits were raised Saturday to 80% and person-to-person distancing was dropped to 3 feet (0.9 meters). New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced that New York City’s subways will begin running all night again and capacity restrictions on most businesses will end statewide in mid-May. And Los Angeles County reported no coronavirus deaths on Sunday and Monday, some of which may be attributable to a lag in reporting but was nevertheless a hopeful sign that could move the county to allow an increase in capacity at events and venues, and indoor-service at bars.

EU officials also announced a proposal Monday to relax restrictions on travel to the 27-nation bloc this summer, though the final decision is up to its member countries.

“Time to revive EU tourism industry and for cross-border friendships to rekindle — safely,” European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said. “We propose to welcome again vaccinated visitors and those from countries with a good health situation.”

In Greece, restaurants and cafes reopened their terraces on Monday after six months of shutdown, with customers flocking to soak up the sunshine. In France, high schools reopened and a ban on domestic travel was lifted.

The once hard-hit Czech Republic, where cases are now declining, announced it will allow people to remove face coverings at all outdoor spaces starting next Monday if they keep their distance from others.

But with more-contagious variants taking hold, efforts are underway to boost vaccination efforts, which have begun to lag. The average number of doses given per day fell 27% from a high of 3.26 million on April 11 to 2.37 million last Tuesday, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

In Detroit, teams from the city’s health department have knocked on nearly 5,000 doors since the weekend to persuade people to get immunized. And Massachusetts’ governor announced plans to close four of seven mass vaccination sites by the end of June in favor of a more targeted approach.

“My plea to everyone: Get vaccinated now, please,” President Joe Biden said in Norfolk, Virginia. He stressed that he has worked hard to make sure there are more than 600 million doses of vaccine — enough for all Americans to get both doses.

April 24, 2021: Las Vegas is bustling again after casino capacity limits were raised Saturday, May 1, to 80% and person-to-person distancing dropped to 3 feet (0.9 meters). 
(AP Photo/John Locher)

“We’re going to increase that number across the board as well so we can also be helping other nations once we take care of all Americans,” the president said.

Brazil, once the epicenter of the pandemic, has been overtaken by a surge in India that has overrun crematoriums and made it clear the p andemic is far from over.

As the U.S. and other countries rushed in aid, India reported nearly 370,000 new cases and more than 3,400 deaths Monday — numbers that experts believe are vast undercounts because of a widespread lack of testing and incomplete reporting.

In Germany, Bavarian officials canceled Oktoberfest for a second year in a row because of the safety risks. The beer-drinking festivities typically attract about 6 million visitors from around the world.

And in Italy, medical experts and politicians expressed concern about a possible spike in infections after tens of thousands of jubilant soccer fans converged on Milan’s main square Sunday to celebrate Inter Milan’s league title.

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The single most common ‘long COVID’ symptom explained – ‘It zaps all of my energy’

COVID-19 is an infectious disease that has killed more than one million people across the world. If you develop any of the key coronavirus symptoms, you should get tested for the infection straight away.

The UK has seen a steady rise in the number of coronavirus cases over the past few weeks.

Almost 10 million people across the country have been put into local lockdowns, in a bid to stop the rising spread of the infection.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson has now ordered all pubs and restaurants to shut at 10pm, while nobody should meet with more than five other people for the foreseeable future.

But some coronavirus patients have reported still having symptoms of the virus eight months after their initial infection.

Fatigue is one of the most common warning signs of long COVID, warned social epidemiologist Margot Witvliet.

She developed the condition, and admitted being confused why her coronavirus symptoms weren’t going away.

The signs lingered for more than four months, with fatigue one of the more prominent symptoms, added Witvliet, who is also a professor at Lamar University.

She struggled to spend too much time in the sun, and she constantly felt devoid of energy.

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“My heart still races even though I am resting,” she wrote for The Conversation.

“I cannot stay in the sun for long periods; it zaps all of my energy. I have gastrointestinal problems, ringing in the ears and chest pain.

“I’m what’s known as a long-hauler – part of a growing group of people who have COVID-19 and have never fully recovered.

“Fatigue is one of the most common persistent symptoms, but there are many others, including the cognitive effects people often describe as brain fog.”

But just because you feel unusually fatigued, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have coronavirus.

Feeling tired all of the time is very common, and it’s usually caused by something less serious.

Diabetes, cancer, hypothyroidism and fibromyalgia have all been linked to persistent fatigue.

It may also be caused by a lack of sleep, not doing enough exercise, eating an unbalanced diet, and even boredom.

Meanwhile, a high fever, a new cough, and a change to your sense of smell or taste are the most common early coronavirus symptoms.

In the UK, you should only get tested for the infection if you develop any of these symptoms.

Some patients have also reported a sore throat, headaches, and even hiccups, on top of the more common signs.

More than 41,000 people have died from coronavirus in the UK.

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COVID-19: CBD protects against lethal pneumonia Naturopathy naturopathy specialist portal

Protective effect of CBD in COVID-19

Cannabidiol (CBD) seems to be the occurring cytokine storm and the excessive lung inflammation in severe COVID-19-disorders counteract. CBD may even make negative changes of the lung by COVID-19 undo.

In the current study, the Augusta University, it was found that CBD could affect the treatment results in severe COVID-19-cases, a positive effect. The study was published in the English magazine “Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research”.

ARDS is one of the main causes of death in COVID-19

The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS or Acute respiratory distress syndrome) in severe cases of some viral infections of the respiratory tract, including COVID-19, one of the main causes of death. There is an urgent need for better Intervention and treatment strategies, is therefore, the researchers describe.

What, exactly, ARDS is?

In acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rapid, severe infection of the lungs, which leads to a widespread inflammation, shortness of breath, rapid breathing and insufficient oxygen supply in the body and brain. Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing are some of the early signs of COVID-19. ARDS is one of the main causes of death in infections with the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

What CBD is?

CBD is available without a prescription and is used for the treatment of seizures, Parkinson’s and other diseases in which pain and/or inflammation play an important role. It is obtained from the hemp plant. Other research has already shown that the calming effect of CBD can have a positive effect on inflammation.

CBD helps the lungs to recover

Laboratory studies indicate that pure CBD of the lung can be caused help to recover from the inflammation and the cytokine storm, which by the COVID-19 Virus. By treatment with CBD in the body is healthier, oxygen can be values, report the researchers.

CBD reduced inflammation-promoting cytokines

In the new study, the applied model makes use of the large, unique genetic structure of the novel Coronavirus. It’s classic symptoms of ARDS, such as, for example, the destructive simulated immune response. CBD reduced in the model, Pro-inflammatory cytokines. As a result, the oxygen content is improved in the blood and the lung was allowed to recover from structural damage.

SARS-CoV-2 alters the lung

A major problem with SARS-CoV-2 is that the exaggerated immune response, the lungs quickly become unusable. The lung is altered so that the Virus will continue increasing, instead of the body with oxygen and to eliminate potentially harmful gases such as carbon dioxide.

High mortality rate for mechanical ventilation

Mechanical ventilation devices can take over these vital functions for a while and allow critically ill people to use less energy to Breathe and have more energy for fighting infection, while the lungs recover, in the ideal case, explain the researchers. However, there is evidence that 30 to 50 per cent of the COVID-19 affected people do not survive in spite of mechanical ventilation.

What was the impact of the treatment with CBD?

The researchers studied the lung function in mice, by analyzing the content of Pro-inflammatory cytokines, the oxygen content in the blood before and after treatment, as well as the temperature. By treatment with CBD, the Oxygen levels increased and inflammation and cytokine values were. In a later analysis of the lung, a reduction in the key indicators for destructive inflammation could be observed.

How successful is the treatment of mice was that?

The mice were treated in a process developed, the mimic should be what happens in people in treatment if they develop respiratory complaints, and probably medical help would take. CBD led to a rapid improvement of clinical symptoms. Later, detailed studies of the lung showed that the damage to your structure, such as tissue growth, scarring, and swelling, were also abated in whole or in part.

Physical changes have been undone

In fact, both the clinical symptoms and the physical changes in the lungs had been made as a result of ARDS, treatment with CBD reversed, report the researchers.

Further research is needed

An earlier use of the CBD could, however, lead to an impairment of proper immune response against the Virus, the Team explains. In the next steps, the research group is planning similar studies in other COVID-19 affected organs, including the intestine, heart and brain. In addition, further investigations are needed to identify the optimal dosage and the right time to the initiation of the treatment with CBD. (as)

Authors and source of information

Spain wants to be controversial Corona-a state of emergency to 20. June extend

The Coronavirus pandemic has the world firmly in its grip: More than five million people were infected worldwide with the novel pathogen, Sars-CoV-2 – 181.468 of them so far in Germany.

Spain wants to be controversial Corona-a state of emergency to 20. June extend

Im Corona-Hotspot Spain wants the left-wing government, the controversial state of emergency to curb the pandemic, up to 20. June extend. He wanted to apply to the Parliament, a last extension of the so-called alarm condition, said Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez on Sunday. You have "almost everything geschafft", what did you set out to do. "But now we need this last extension to bringen&quot the work to the end;, the socialist explained. It is a &quot will;.attenuated Form" of a state of emergency to be. dpa/Moncloa/EUROPA PRESS/dpa , With a minute of silence opened the Spanish government a ten-day state mourning for the so far, around 27,000 deaths in the Corona pandemic in the country.

On the request of the government, the Parliament will debate on Wednesday and vote. Only in the context of the already since the age of 15. March of the applicable third-highest emergency level may restrict the government in Madrid, the rights of citizens throughout the country. It continues to be strict nightlife restrictions, which are only relaxed in the last few weeks slowly apply to the example.

All further messages to the Corona-crisis in Germany, Europe and the world, you will find in the News Ticker of FOCUS Online.  

All the important messages to the Coronavirus in the FOCUS Online Newsletter. Subscribe now.

 
 

13-Year-old is filming illegally Tesla-construction – Elon Musk is thrilled

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Young infected more than 100 students and teachers in Israel, with Covid-19

The Coronavirus pandemic has the world firmly in its grip: More than five million people were infected worldwide with the novel pathogen, Sars-CoV-2 – 181.468 of them so far in Germany.

Neuanstieg of coronavirus infections: Netanyahu warns Israelis

In the face of a Neuanstiegs of Corona infections in Israel, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has warned the country’s citizens to be more disciplined. At the start of a Cabinet meeting in Jerusalem, Netanyahu said on Sunday: "There are in the last days an increase in diseases, accompanied by a softening of the discipline."

As new foci of infection in Israel, schools are especially. According to information from the Ministry of education, 17 kindergartens and schools due to the Corona have already been new cases closed again. Most of the new cases, there was in a Jerusalem high school, where more than 100 teachers and students are sick. According to media reports, a single &quot had there;Superspreader" the other infected. Ronan Zvulun/Reuters Pool/AP/dpa

"There is no doubt that there is an increase in comparison to what we haben&quot in the last couple of weeks is;, Netanyahu said. "The Corona pandemic is not yet over." We must now determine whether there is a real trend change. "We will consider in the next few days, our steps, and if necessary we will change the policy accordingly." Netanyahu appealed to Israelis to wear more masks, a minimum of two meters to comply with the hygiene rules to be complied with.

On the weekend, parties in Bars and Clubs in social media often to see where many people are densely crowded, and without a Mouth guard celebrated. Also on the streets and in public facilities, many Israelis without a mask, are now on the road.

Israel had reacted to the beginning of the Corona-shaft very quickly with rigorous measures, the course of the pandemic in the small Mediterranean country was relatively lightly. In the course of a gradual relaxation of the rules began a month ago, the Opening of the schools. From Sunday to gatherings of up to 100 people are allowed.

All further messages to the Corona-crisis in Germany, Europe and the world, you will find in the News Ticker of FOCUS Online.  

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13-Year-old is filming illegally Tesla-construction – Elon Musk is thrilled

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Protest against Corona-measures: motorcade through Berlin started

The Coronavirus pandemic has the world firmly in its grip: More than five million people were infected worldwide with the novel pathogen, Sars-CoV-2 – 179.928 of them so far in Germany.

Protest against Corona-measures: motorcade through Berlin started

As a Protest against the Corona-measures started in front of the Berlin Olympic stadium in a motorcade. Several dozen cars and motorbikes followed on Saturday morning honking his horn to the eye-catching Porsche from Vegan chef and best-selling author Attila Hildmann. They wanted to arrive in the afternoon in front of the Chancellery. Hildmann (39) was most recently noticed with the proliferation of conspiracy narratives, he had several times called to meetings. To the Start on Saturday morning, he was posing with a German flag in front of the stadium. The police accompanied the action.

Overall, this was announced in Berlin for the weekend, lots of Demos. After a week-long Corona-restriction, there is now no limit on the number of participants is more.

Meetings are on Saturday, according to police at the Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, the Alexanderplatz, the Large star and in front of the Reichstag logged in. The demands of the protesters are the one to end all restrictions on the fundamental rights by the Corona pandemic. Add to this the elevators, the turned against reche incitement and conspiracy myths.

The Berlin Alliance against the Right had been pre-announced, the supporters of the conspiracy ideologies staged in emblematic places. The one wanted to stand against.

All further messages to the Corona-crisis in Germany, Europe and the world, you will find in the News Ticker of FOCUS Online.  

All the important messages to the Coronavirus in the FOCUS Online Newsletter. Subscribe now.

 
 

According to George Floyd’s death: New Video: the cruel Details of arrest revealed

FOCUS Online/Wochit According to George Floyd’s death: New Video reveals gruesome Details of the arrest

What a mistake: Merkel addresses the significant words in Corona doubters

The Coronavirus pandemic has the world firmly in its grip: More than five million people were infected worldwide with the novel pathogen, Sars-CoV-2 – 179.928 of them so far in Germany.

"What for a error!": Merkel speaks German to Some

Chancellor Angela Merkel has thanked the citizens for their prudence in the Corona-crisis. "We have passed this test so far is quite good. We, all together, an overwhelming majority of the people in our country, of caution, of reason and of responsibility for other direct lassen", the CDU politician say in their on Saturday published a weekly video message. "We have saved us a lot of. Our collective power is what has not happened with us, fortunately."

Merkel also warned against the risks to under-estimate. "Some people think now, because the great mass of suffering is not to have occurred, was also the danger never so great. What a mistake!" A view in friends to show what could have happened.

The Chancellor said that she hoped that further easing steps are possible, but also called for consideration. "I ask you: let us Rejoice in all that again, and we will use it. But let us be considerate, and we respect the need to protect the Other." As in the past four months, I continue to each and every largely in our own hands, to avoid risks and to protect the company from an even worse fate.

Merkel also referred to the existing state aid programmes and announced further support. "Of course it is not done with these instant AIDS." Next week the government is due to adopt an economic recovery program.

All further messages to the Corona-crisis in Germany, Europe and the world, you will find in the News Ticker of FOCUS Online.  

All the important messages to the Coronavirus in the FOCUS Online Newsletter. Subscribe now.

 
 

According to George Floyd’s death: New Video: the cruel Details of arrest revealed

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Right in the middle of the Abitur-exams: Covid-19-the case of Bavarian grammar school

The Coronavirus pandemic, keeps the world in breath: More than 5 million people globally have become infected with the novel Sars-CoV-2 – 178.568 of them so far in Germany.

Right in the middle of the Abitur-exams: Covid-19-the case of Bavarian grammar school

Ironically, in the midst of the Abitur-exams: A teacher of the Graf-Rasso-gymnasium Fürstenfeldbruck is positive in the Coronavirus tested. The “Münchner Merkur” citing the competent district office.

The teacher was, according to the “mercury” in the on Wednesday (20. May) will be held in German-Abitur supervisor for six students. It is supposed to have passed, there is no direct contact, which is why the students as a "Contact persons of the level 2" were classified. You don’t have to put in quarantine and could continue their baccalaureate exams.

The rest of the class and school were not affected, the tests would be normal. The teacher, according to good, said the head of the school, Doris Hübler the news portal said.

 

All messages to the Corona-crisis in Germany, Europe and the world, you will find in the News Ticker of FOCUS Online.

Cheese cake: lightning recipe without the ground – in less than 10 minutes in the oven

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Restart at the Corona-Hotspot West meat in Coesfeld

The Coronavirus pandemic in Germany medicine, politics, tourism and society firmly in its grip: More than four million people globally have become infected with the pathogen of Sars-CoV-2, 175.173 of them in Germany.

Restart at the Corona-Hotspot West meat in Coesfeld

After a forced break due to the many Corona-infections-Western meat starts on Tuesday with a test operation in the Coesfeld plant. In the first step, but still no pigs are to be slaughtered. The gradual start-up of the operation is accompanied by surveillance authorities. Used only for employees, you can have negative test results with the Coronavirus to be.

The district of Coesfeld had closed the plant in front of one and a half weeks temporarily, after numerous plant had infected the workers with the Coronavirus.

Also in lower Saxony is in operation in the district of Osnabrück, are employees of a Meat many Coronavirus infections have become known to the company West crown in Dissen, which is also operated by the battle company West meat together with Danish Crown. There, the district tested a total of 92 employees in a positive way.

On Monday, the operation rested thereupon. According to the district of approximately 2000 tonnes of meat may process. Thereafter, the operation for 14 days, it must close completely. A total of around 300 employees work in Dissen.

All further news about Corona-pandemic from Germany, Europe and the world, you will find in the News Ticker of FOCUS Online.  

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After Edeka and Netto Lidl now sells Designer masks by Van Laack

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