Early birth linked to greater risk of hospital visits during childhood

Being born early (before 37 weeks’ gestation) is associated with a higher risk of hospital admission throughout childhood than being born at full term (40 weeks’ gestation), finds a study published by The BMJ today.

Although the risk declined as the children grew up, particularly after age 2, an excess risk remained up to age 10, even for children born at 38 and 39 weeks’ gestation, representing many potentially vulnerable children, say the researchers.

Preterm birth is a major contributor to childhood ill health. Existing evidence suggests that the risk of illness associated with preterm birth declines as children grow up, but it remains unclear at what age this begins to happen and how these changes vary by week of gestational age at birth.

To explore this further, a team of UK researchers set out to examine the association between gestational age at birth and hospital admissions to age 10 years and how admission rates change throughout childhood.

Their findings are based on data from more than 1 million children born in NHS hospitals in England between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2006. Children were monitored from birth until 31 March 2015 (an average of 9.2 years per child), during which time the researchers analysed numbers of hospital admissions.

Gestational age at birth was analysed in weeks, from less than 28 up to 42 weeks.

Over 1.3 million hospital admissions occurred during the study period, of which 831,729 (63%) were emergency admissions. Just over half (525,039) of children were admitted to hospital at least once during the study period.

After taking account of other potentially influential risk factors, such as mother’s age, marital status and level of social deprivation, and child’s sex, ethnicity and month of birth, the researchers found that hospital admissions during childhood were strongly associated with gestational age at birth.

The hospital admission rate during infancy in babies born at 40 weeks was 28 per 100 person years—this figure was about six times higher in babies born extremely prematurely (less than 28 weeks). By the time the children were aged 7-10 years, the hospital admission rate in children born at 40 weeks was 7 per 100 person years—this figure was about three times higher in those born at less than 28 weeks.

But even children born a few weeks early had higher admission rates. Being born at 37, 38, and 39 weeks’ gestation was associated with a difference in the rate of admission of 19, 9, and 3 admissions per 100 person years during infancy, respectively, compared with those born at 40 weeks.

The risk of hospital admission associated with gestational age decreased over time, particularly after age 2. However, an excess risk remained up to age 10, even for children born at 38 and 39 weeks’ gestation.

Although this excess risk at 38 and 39 weeks was relatively small, the large number of babies born globally at these gestational ages suggests that they are likely to have a large impact on hospital services, say the researchers.

Infections were the main cause of excess hospital admissions at all ages, but particularly during infancy. Respiratory and gastrointestinal conditions also accounted for a large proportion of admissions during the first two years of life.

This is an observational study, so can’t establish cause, and the researchers point to some limitations, such as being unable to take account of several factors that can impact child health like maternal smoking and breastfeeding.

However, they say this was a large study using routinely collected data over a 10 year period, and the findings remained relatively stable after further analyses, suggesting that the results withstand scrutiny.

As such, the researchers say their findings indicate that gestational age at birth “is a strong predictor of childhood illness, with those born extremely preterm being at the greatest risk of hospital admission throughout childhood.”

And the finding that infections were the main cause of excess hospital admissions at all ages prompt the researchers to call for targeted strategies to help prevent and better manage childhood infections.

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'Real Housewives' Babies! See Which Bravo Stars Gave Birth

Welcome to the world! When it comes to adding more babies to their broods, these Real Housewives have been busy.

Meghan King Edmonds, who appeared on Real Housewives of Orange County for three seasons, has three children ages two and under. The former reality star gave birth to her daughter, Aspen, in 2016 — and she and her husband, Jim Edmonds, welcomed twin boys, Hart and Hayes, 18 months later.

“You guys, I’m IN IT right now,” the Missouri native captioned an August 2019 pic with her tiny trio, one month after revealing that Hart had been diagnosed with “irreversible brain damage.”

“Hart and I leave for several weeks of intensive therapy and I’m going to miss the tar out of the rest of the fam,” Meghan wrote at the time. “Some days I feel less like a person and more like a machine going through the motions. Thank you to everyone who has made me feel like a person: preschool moms organizing last minute play dates, my sister for letting me nap for an hour, my nanny for watching Netflix with me.”

Another former RHOC star Gretchen Rossi welcomed her first child with her fiancé, Slade Smiley, in July 2019 after doing in vitro fertilization. She gushed over her husband after her C-section, telling Us Weekly exclusively, “Slade has been the best support any woman could dream of. He is a rock of strength!”

The former Bravo personality went on to praise her own body on Instagram, writing three weeks after birth: “I went into labor and delivery at 170 pounds and I think I’m down to 145 and I’m not even trying. … I’m pretty amazed about how amazing the body is. It can grow a little baby and go back like that. It’s just crazy what happens.”

Keep scrolling to take a look at more former and current Bravo stars who have recently given birth, from Real Housewives of Atlanta’s Porsha Williams and Kenya Moore to Real Housewives of Potomac’s Ashley Darby and Monique Samuels.

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DWTS' Lindsay Arnold Shows Postpartum Body 1 Week After Daughter​​​'s Birth

Postpartum pride! Lindsay Arnold rocked a nursing bra and leggings one week after giving birth to her daughter, Sage.

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“Wearing my fave postpartum clothes from #kindredbravely,” the Dancing With the Stars pro, 26, captioned her Sunday, November 8, Instagram Story mirror selfie. “I seriously underestimated how important a good nursing bra is.”

The So You Think You Can Dance alum went on to share footage modeling her outfit, saying, “I also wanted to show you the leggings I got, seriously so freaking comfortable. [They’re] so nice because [they] give, like, a little bit of suction support, which is really good for my C-section. I am loving these.”

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The Utah native announced earlier this month that she and her husband, Sam Cusick, had welcomed their baby girl. “The most beautiful surprise on this very special day,” the dancer wrote via Instagram on November 2. “Baby Girl and mama are healthy and well.”

Arnold revealed the infant’s name two days later and gave her Instagram followers more details on Sage’s arrival, eight days ahead of her due date.

“I woke up to my water breaking around 3:30 a.m. at home in bed and contractions started immediately after,” the DWTS season 25 winner captioned a photo of the newborn. “Sam and I grabbed everything and headed straight to hospital. Baby girl was still breech and I was progressing very fast so we prepped right away for C-section delivery. I am so grateful for the incredible team of nurses and doctors who delivered our baby girl to us safe and sound.”

The new mom shared the significance behind Sage’s moniker, writing, “She entered this world on the same day that we lost Sam’s beautiful mother just one year ago and we couldn’t help but see God’s hand in this and know that Sage was handed down to us by her beautiful angel grandmother, Jennifer Jill Gillette Cusick.”

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Fellow DWTS pro Peta Murgatroyd commented on the social media upload with heart emojis, while pregnant Witney Carson wrote, “Love her so much already. She is so beautiful and what an amazing day to come into this world! So special.”

Arnold and her high school sweetheart tied the knot in June 2015 in Utah. Five years later, they announced that they were starting a family.

“A lot of people have asked, ‘Are you going to have her dance?’ Of course, if she wants to dance, I would love that because I know a lot about it,” the then-pregnant star exclusively told Us Weekly in July. “I just really look forward to helping her find the thing that she loves to do and then being her biggest No. 1 fan.”

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Melissa Benoist Is 'Loving' Parenthood After Her, Chris Wood's Son's Birth

Loving life with her little one! Melissa Benoist spoke about motherhood for the first time nearly one month after announcing her and Chris Wood‘s son’s birth.

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“Oh, man, he’s the best,” the actress, 32, said during a Saturday, October 17, Instagram Live video with Congresswoman Karen Bass. “I am loving being a parent. I love being a mom. He’s such a sweetheart.”

The Colorado native added, “He’s already so big and every day I’m, like, crying because he’s gained half an ounce.”

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The Broadway star has purchased a “cute Halloween onesie” for the little one, telling the politician, 67: “We’ll probably watch movies. … It’s a bummer we’re not gonna get any trick-or-treaters [amid the coronavirus pandemic], but it’s for a good reason.”

The new mom announced her newborn’s arrival last month. “Huxley Robert Wood got here a few weeks ago and this little boy is everything,” the Glee alum captioned a September Instagram photo of her baby boy holding her finger.

Wood, also 32, added with a post of his own: “Our son was born his name is Huxley he’s amazing and no it’s probably none of your business xo brb see you in 18 years.”

The social media uploads came six months after the Supergirl costars shared their pregnancy news. “A non-canine child is coming to our family very soon,” Benoist captioned their March reveal. “@christophrwood has always been an old dad by nature but now he’s going to be a real one!”

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The couple tied the knot in September 2019 in California. The singer was previously married to Blake Jenner before she and the actor, 28, called it quits in 2016.

In Benoist’s Saturday Instagram Live, she also used her platform to speak about domestic violence. Benoist first revealed in 2019 that she was previously in an abusive relationship, and Jenner confirmed earlier this month that she was referring to their marriage. While the Florida native admitted to “emotionally, mentally and yes, physically” hurting his ex-wife, he accused Benoist of being abusive as well. The Waco star has yet to respond to his claims.

One year after her divorce from Jenner, she started dating Wood. They got engaged in February 2019.

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Inside Pregnant Hannah Ferrier's Baby Shower Ahead of Daughter's Birth

Almost there! Pregnant Hannah Ferrier enjoyed “the most amazing baby shower” on Saturday, August 29.

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“Baby Shower 2020,” the Below Deck alum, 33, captioned an Instagram slideshow of party photos, featuring a balloon backdrop, sweet treats and more . “I am blown away daily by the people that surround me. Thank you so much to all my gorgeous friends and family who celebrated with me.”

90 Day Fiancé’s Loren Brovarnik commented, “Glowing goddess,” while former Disney Channel star Jordan Pruitt wrote, “Stunning.”

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The Aussie announced in June that she and her partner, Josh, have a little one on the way. She revealed the sex of their baby-to-be two months later.

Earlier this month, the Bravo personality gave a glimpse at her “little princess” in an ultrasound shot. “Is she not like the cutest baby you have ever seen in your life?” the former reality star gushed to Bravo at the time. “I’m like, ‘Oh, my God, look at her nose!’”

Josh has been spoiling the former chief stewardess throughout her pregnancy, Ferrier went on to say. “I actually got a little teary the other day because I think I’ve really enjoyed my pregnancy journey so much because of him,” she said at the time. “He’ll get up at like 3 a.m. and go and get me cereal. Or if I decide the shirt I’m sleeping in isn’t comfortable enough, he has to go and find a specific one in the laundry. He just does everything without batting an eyelid.”

While the mom-to-be is “scared” of giving birth, she feels “100 percent” prepared to start a family with her yachting experience.

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“People are like, ‘Oh, it’s the hardest thing, and you’ll be so sleep deprived,” Ferrier explained to Bravo’s Daily Dish in June. “I’m like, I just cannot see it being any harder or any more sleep deprived than a season of Below Deck Med, that’s for sure. If you ever want training to be a mother, then you should probably go and work on a superyacht for a few years, because I think it’ll be a walk in the park compared to that.”

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'Bachelor' Baby! Britt Nilsson Gives Birth to 1st Child With Jeremy Byrne

Welcome to Bachelor Nation! Britt Nilsson and her husband, Jeremy Byrne, welcomed their first child, a baby girl, on Tuesday, June 23.

The former reality star announced her daughter’s arrival on Friday, June 26, sharing a series of photos and posts on Instagram. “Hello! My Name is Noa Ellis Joy Byrne and I was born June 23 at 5:52 am, 9lb and 21 inches long!! 👑👑👑🥳🥳🥳🥰🥰🥰💕💕💕,” Nilsson wrote.

The Michigan native revealed that Noa has multiple meanings. In Hebrew she said it means “movement” or “motion,” while in Japanese it means “my love” or “from love.”


💕👑💕 squooooshhhyyy I love you more than words could ever say. And yes I’m probably gonna post a lot of pictures 🥳🥳🥳🌷🌷💃💃💃 I can’t help it! 😭😭😭😭💋💋

A post shared byBritt Karolina Byrne (@brittkarolinabyrne) on

The new mom continued: “In Hawaiian it means ‘freedom’ or ‘sea of freedom.’ In Arabic it means ‘higher’ and ‘genius.’ To us, it means the cutest little squishy warrior princess angel nugget ever born on this earth. It’s also a biblical story in Numbers about 5 daughters asking Moses for their fathers’ inheritance and God blessing their request before that was even remotely happening in society. Get it girl! So basically we love it for all the reasons!”

Nilsson added that Ellis means, “Yahweh is God” or “My God is Jehovah” or “The Lord is my God” and “JOY means JOY.”

The Bachelor alum, 33, announced in December 2019 that she was pregnant. “Swipe to see who’s inside!!!!” Nilsson captioned her Instagram reveal at the time. “First pic is me at 14 weeks, second is baby Byrne at 10 weeks. I can’t believe our little boobah is zootin all around so much with their little legs and arms, makes me cry!! Can’t wait to keep watching you grow, I already love you so much!”

Two months later, she and Byrne, shared the sex of their baby-to-be with the help of a confetti cannon.

The couple, who wed in September 2017 in Vista, California, were traveling to Taiwan ahead of their little one’s arrival when their home burned down in March. “Just know we are safe, happy, and good and are seeing more than ever that Father God is a wonderful protector, counselor, comforter!” Nilsson wrote alongside Instagram footage following the fire. “And even though I’ve cried a LOT the past weeks, I’ve also felt more LIFE and POWER than when everything is just easy.”

The former model and Bryne started dating in 2016 following her split from Bachelorette alum Brady Toops. While Nilsson came close to leading season 11 of the ABC show the previous year, Kaitlyn Bristowe received more votes for the role from male contestants.

In May 2017, Byrne got down on one knee. After going to Detroit, Michigan, to get Nilsson’s dad’s blessing, he proposed in their home surrounded by white candles and flower petals.

“WE ARE ENGAGED!!!!” his then-fiancée captioned her Instagram reveal. “I’m over the moon!!! The man of my dreams and the most godly, amazing, fun, life-giving, silly, intelligent, wonderful best friend I could ever ask for is my future husband!!!! I have been dreaming of this day forever!! Thank You Jesus!!! Wooo hooooo!!!!! I had no idea it was coming and it was the best day of my life! I love you forever Jeremy Byrne!!!”

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Jamie Otis Recalls ‘Rough’ Unmedicated Birth Amid Coronavirus Pandemic

Baby bliss? Jamie Otis revealed what it was really like having an unmedicated birth for her son, Hendrix, one month after his arrival.

“The only reason why I did the unmedicated home birth was because of the pandemic, the world right now,” Otis, 34, told Us Weekly exclusively on Wednesday, June 17, while promoting her partnership with Align and their launch of a colic relief product. “I just felt like it was safer, because I had a low risk pregnancy, to be able to just offer that home rather than go into the hospital or like most sick people are going. And man, it was going to be painful.”

She explained that although she knew what was coming, having had daughter Henley in 2017 and being a labor and delivery nurse herself, without the meds “it was rough.” On top of that, the entire thing was filmed.

The Married at First Sight alum continued, “Barbaric is a great word, having no control over yourself. Like, I don’t even know what I was saying. I’m, like, if there’s some kind of bleeps, I’m sorry.”

The mother of two prepared for her son’s natural birth and said that although it “almost seems foreign to us” based on the frequency of hospital births using an epidural, “it’s really natural to have a baby.”

Despite the pain that came during her little one’s arrival, the Wifey 101 author noticed a difference between how quickly she bonded with her son during the home birth vs her daughter’s hospital one.

“I had him and I looked at him and I was instantly in love and I didn’t have that type of bond or experience with Henley,” she told Us. “So I mean it’s worth it. It’s worth all the pain and, like, you know, all of that, just to be able to have that overwhelming sense of love for your baby.”

The former Bachelor contestant added: “I wish I could have had that with my daughter. And obviously I love her. I mean, sorry, Henley for watching this later on in life. I love you. I loved it from the moment I saw.”

Otis, who shared both children with husband Doug Hehner, shared photos of her water birth earlier this month. “This absolute hardest, but more MIRACULOUS & rewarding thing I’ve ever done is give birth to my baby unmedicated,” she wrote via Instagram on June 9.

The New York native announced her son’s arrival on May 13, writing, “He’s HERE!”

The couple later announced they decided to switch their baby boy’s name from Hayes to Hendrix upon meeting him.

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Pregnant Bekah Martinez Details Home Birth Plan Ahead of Baby No. 2

Happy at home! Pregnant Bekah Martinez is “really excited” about her upcoming home birth.

“With my first daughter Ruth, we had her at a birth center,” the Bachelor alum, 25, said on the new episode of Us Weekly’s “Here for the Right Reasons” podcast. “This time, [my boyfriend, Grayston Leonard, and I] decided we were going to do a home birth with midwives. So that was already the plan. Now with quarantine and COVID-19, it’s kind of nice that I don’t have to be at the hospital.”

The “Chatty Broads” podcast cohost went on to tell Us exclusively that “virtually nothing had to change” about her plan amid the coronavirus pandemic. “If anything, some people think I’m a little less crazy, so good,” the former ABC personality joked.

The former reality star and Leonard, 31, previously welcomed their daughter, Ruth, in February 2019. The 15-month-old has “no freaking clue” that she has a younger sibling on the way.

Martinez explained, “For her, it’s been pretty gradual. [My stomach] been slowly growing over half her life, basically, like I got pregnant when she was seven months old. So I don’t know if she really notices. But we tell her like, ‘Baby, there’s a baby inside,’ and we’ll point to pictures of babies.”

The California native announced in November 2019 that she and the rock climbing gym owner are expecting baby No. 2. Their baby boy is due in June.

Martinez has “noticed little differences here and there,” she told Us of her second pregnancy. “I don’t think I have any, like, preconceived notions of what it’s gonna be like to have a boy vs. a girl because I was I was a nanny for five years before. You have little girls who are crazy, energetic maniacs everywhere all at once, then you have little boys who are just super sweet and cuddly and easygoing and have sort of that stereotypical girl energy. I think it’s kind of a gamble.”

With reporting by Sarah Hearon

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