Corona-pandemic: WHO, reluctant at the Russian vaccine

The Corona-pandemic keeps the world in suspense: More than 20 million people have been infected so far worldwide, with the Coronavirus, 217.768 of them in Germany.

The world health organization WHO has responded with restraint to the Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the approval of a Corona vaccine. The WHO is aware that Russia have registered a vaccine, and welcome all the progress in research and development to Covid-19 vaccines reported to the WHO regional office for Europe at the request of the German press Agency.

At the same time, the office pointed out that the accelerated vaccine research in each step of development should go in accordance with proven processes to take place. This will ensure that any vaccine is safe and effective, if he was going to ultimately phase in the production. The WHO was in contact with the Russian scientists and authorities, and looking forward to check the details of the Experiments.

Putin announced on Tuesday the world’s first government approval of a vaccine for broad use against the Coronavirus. The admission was made before the Existence of the results of large clinical trials – an approach that speaks the standard international sequence resistance.

The latest news on Corona-crisis in Germany, Europe and the world read in the News-Ticker of FOCUS Online.

 

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Untapped potential for TikTok to convey COVID-19 guidance

Research published in DeGruyter’s International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health suggests TikTok is rich with untapped educational potential. The platform could play a vital role in conveying important health information alongside lip-syncing videos and viral dance challenges, the paper’s authors say.

Led by researchers at William Paterson University and Columbia University, the new study, “COVID-19 on TikTok: Harnessing an emerging social media platform to convey important public health messages” explores how coronavirus information is being communicated on the platform. This has been a largely unexplored area—until now.

TikTok is a social media platform on which users share short videos. Since its worldwide release in 2018, it has soared in popularity—especially with teenagers and young people. It now has 800 million users worldwide and 37 billion monthly views in the United States alone.

Using a #Coronavirus hashtag, researchers examined and analyzed 117 TikTok videos, 17 of which were created by the World Health Organization (WHO). Altogether, the videos analyzed in the study received more than a billion views.

Fewer than 10% of the videos mentioned how the virus is transmitted, symptoms of COVID-19 and prevention of viral spread. None of the videos—including those uploaded by the WHO—discussed death and death rates, viral incubation time, wearing a face mask or travel restrictions.

The most commonly portrayed topics were anxiety and quarantine, with little focus on transmission and preventing infection. This may stem from the fact that teenagers are facing many social and emotional challenges as a result of lockdown measures—ranging from coping with school closures to the requirement to minimize contact with others.

The researchers behind the study think this indicates a missed opportunity to engage young people with vital health information related to the global pandemic. TikTok could potentially be used to convey messages about controlling the spread of coronavirus by the strict enforcement of social distancing. It is particularly important to impress this information upon the main TikTok audience of teenagers and young adults who can easily pass on the virus to more vulnerable and older family members.

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New study documents increasing frequency, cost, and severity of gunshot wounds

The rise in firearm violence has coincided with an increase in the severity of injuries firearms inflict as well as the cost of operations to treat those injuries; policy makers must be more aggressive in addressing violence to curb these trends, researchers report in a large national study of gunshot wounds that appears as an “article in press” on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website ahead of print.

“Taken together, our findings suggest that gun violence has increased in numbers, at least for the sector that meets surgical criteria, and that these injuries result in a substantial financial burden in addition to the obvious psychosocial burden and other downstream effects,” said lead study author Peyman Benharash, MD, MS, with the Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Laboratories and an associate professor-in-residence of surgery and bioengineering at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles. “We hope that our findings are able to better inform policy in terms of violence prevention as well as reimbursement to hospitals, which are often in underserved regions, that care for these patients.”

The study authors note that gun violence overall carries an annual cost to the U.S. health care system of $170 billion, with $16 billion for operations alone. The researchers used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify all hospital admissions for gunshot wounds (GSW) from 2005 through 2016. The researchers did not look at all adult GSW victims admitted to the hospital, estimated at 322,599, but only at the 262,098 victims who required at least one major operation.

Dr. Benharash explained the rationale for the study. “We’re now seeing a lot more on the impact of gun violence,” he said. “In the past, gun violence was never really discussed in the open; it was thought to only affect a certain population. However, now we know that it affects everyone. In the hopes of trying to reduce it at a systemic level from top to bottom, we’re reporting, as surgeons, how gun violence in the patients that we treat has changed over the last decade.”

The costs for hospitalizations, measured as median costs adjusted for gross domestic product, increased more than 27 percent over the 12-year study period, from $15,100 to $19,200 (p<0.001). The amount of time these patients spent in the hospital—a major cost driver—also increased from an average of 7.1 days to 12.6 days (p<0.001). The percentage of fatalities declined, from 8.6 percent in 2005 to 7.6 percent in 2016, despite an annual increase in overall admissions for GSW-related operations, from 19,832 in 2005 to 23,480 in 2016. The severity of these injuries, based on billing codes, increased slightly over that period, with predicted survival decreasing from 81 to 79 percent (P<0.001). The authors used a non-parametric test for trends to judge the significance of temporal changes in their analysis.

The cost analysis categorized operations by type and three different cost ranges: low, medium and high, with average costs of $7,400, $17,200, and $58,800, respectively. “We found that compared with those who were not operated on, patients having head-neck, vascular, and gastrointestinal operations had increased odds of being in the high-cost tertile,” Dr. Benharash said. “Being in the Western United States was also a predictor [of being in the high-cost tertile], as was being of Black race and having insurance by Medicaid. So there are certainly disparities that are socioeconomic in origin as well.”

For example, the study found that while 3.4 percent of all patients had operations for head and neck injuries, these operations were disproportionately represented in the low- and high-cost ranges, accounting for only 0.81 percent of the former but 7.1 percent of the latter. “Gunshot wounds to the neck, for example, can be very costly because they can affect many delicate structures as compared with lower extremities, and these patients often require extensive hospitalization and a greater number of procedures,” Dr. Benharash said.

The finding that costs in the West were higher is also important, Dr. Benharash noted, because it’s in line with what other studies have reported with other specialties. “It’s very important for policy makers and health services researchers to evaluate the disparities in cost,” he said.

The improved survival of GSW patients is a function of improvements in trauma transport from the field, better prehospital resuscitation, and improved techniques, patient management and adjunct therapies once they get to the hospital, Dr. Benharash said. “It appears that patients are reaching surgery more often because of reduced mortality before they get to the hospital,” he said.

The study also attributed these improvements in survival to efforts by the American College of Surgeon’s Committee on Trauma, including the Advanced Trauma Life Support curriculum and Stop the Bleed campaign. The latter trains the public in techniques to stop life-threatening bleeding in everyday emergencies.

But those improvements don’t obviate the need for addressing the underlying problem, Dr. Benharash noted. “It’s very important to put it in perspective that this entity is quite economically burdensome,” he said. “If you’re looking at prevention vs. treating a gunshot wound from an economic standpoint, it would make sense to invest in anti-violence interventions that can reduce assaults that are often preventable.”

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New test better predicts which babies will develop type 1 diabetes

A new approach to predicting which babies will develop type 1 diabetes moves a step closer to routine testing for newborns which could avoid life-threatening complications.

Scientists at seven international sites have followed 7,798 children at high risk of developing type 1 diabetes from birth, over nine years, in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study. The TEDDY Study is a large international study funded primarily by the US National Institutes of Health and U.S. Centers for Disease Control, as well as by the charity JDRF.

In research published in Nature Medicine, scientists at the University of Exeter and the Pacific Northwest Research Institute in Seattle used the TEDDY data to develop a method of combining multiple factors that could influence whether a child is likely to develop type 1 diabetes. The combined risk score approach incorporates genetics, clinical factors such as family history of diabetes, and their count of islet autoantibodies—biomarkers known to be implicated in type 1 diabetes.

The research team found that the new combined approach dramatically improved prediction of which children would develop type 1 diabetes, potentially allowing better diabetes risk counseling of families. Most importantly, the new approach doubled the efficiency of programs to screen newborns to prevent the potentially deadly condition of ketoacidosis, a consequence of type 1 diabetes in which insulin deficiency causes the blood to become too acidic. Identifying which children are at highest risk will also benefit clinical trials on drugs that are showing promise in preventing the condition.

Dr. Lauric Ferrat at the University of Exeter Medical School, said: “At the moment, 40 per cent of children who are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes have the severe complication of ketoacidosis. For the very young this is life-threatening, resulting in long intensive hospitalizations and in some cases even paralysis or death. Using our new combined approach to identify which babies will develop diabetes can prevent these tragedies, and ensure children are on the right treatment pathway earlier in life, meaning better health.”

Professor William Hagopian of the Pacific Northwest Research Institute, said: “We’re really excited by these findings. They suggest that the routine heel prick testing of babies done at birth, could go a long way towards preventing early sickness as well as predicting which children will get type 1 diabetes years later. We’re now putting this to the test in a trial in Washington State. We hope it will ultimately be used internationally to identify the condition as early as possible, and to power efforts to prevent the disease.”

Researchers believe the combined approach can also be rolled out to predict the onset of other diseases with a strong genetic component that are identifiable in childhood, such as celiac disease.

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US rescinds global ‘do not travel’ coronavirus warning

The Trump administration on Thursday rescinded its warnings to Americans against all international travel because of the coronavirus pandemic, saying conditions no longer warrant a blanket worldwide alert.

The State Department lifted its level-four health advisory for the entire world in order to return to country-specific warnings. That move came shortly after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised its COVID-19 travel advisory information. The CDC lifted “do not travel” warnings for about 20 locations but advised staying away from the vast majority of the world.

“With health and safety conditions improving in some countries and potentially deteriorating in others, the department is returning to our previous system of country-specific levels of travel advice in order to give travelers detailed and actionable information to make informed travel decisions,” the State Department said in a statement.

“This will also provide U.S. citizens more detailed information about the current status in each country,” it said. “We continue to recommend U.S. citizens exercise caution when traveling abroad due to the unpredictable nature of the pandemic.”

The State Department invoked the blanket warning against all international travel on March 19 as the pandemic spread. The revised country-specific travel advice is available at travel.state.gov. However, Americans still face travel restrictions across the world because of the uncontrolled spread of the coronavirus in the country.

Earlier Thursday, the CDC revised its travel guidance, saying the changes were driven by how the virus was spreading in different places and how well the public health and health care systems were functioning in dealing with new cases.

Seven places, including Thailand, Fiji and New Zealand, are in a low-risk group, according to the CDC, although officials there advised that certain people, such as older adults and those with certain underlying medical conditions, talk to their doctors before making the trip. For more than a dozen other locations, it had no precautions. Taiwan, Greenland, and Laos are on that list.

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Beating Acid Reflux

If уоu are ѕuffеring frоm thе diѕсоmfоrt оf acid rеflux disease, there are ѕоmе ѕimрlе ѕtерѕ you саn tаkе tо rеduсе уоur pain. And thе bеѕt раrt iѕ, these ѕtерѕ аrе undеr уоur соntrоl.

The firѕt thing уоu ѕhоuld dо is tаkе a lооk at уоur diеt. If уоu hаvе had a асid rеflux disease for аnу length оf timе, you hаvе рrоbаblу noticed that ѕоmе fооdѕ juѕt aggravate the situation. Dо уоur bеѕt tо аvоid thеm соmрlеtеlу. Thеѕе саn be spicy fооdѕ likе Mеxiсаn аnd Itаliаn fооdѕ, оr simple things likе tomatoes and citrus fruitѕ. Mаkе it a роint tо еаt a hеаlthу diеt and уоu will find thаt асid rеflux trоublеѕ уоu less and less often. Avоid fatty, оilу fооdѕ., as they are a big contributor to acid rеflux diѕеаѕе.

Stress iѕ another big соntributоr tо асid rеflux diѕеаѕе. It isn’t always easy tо еliminаtе stress in уоur lifе, but finding wауѕ to соntrоl thе аmоunt iѕ something уоu can dо. Lеаrn some rеlаxаtiоn techniques аnd practice them rеligiоuѕlу еvеrу dау. Strеѕѕ contributes tо a grеаt mаnу health-rеlаtеd рrоblеmѕ, аnd уоu will find thаt if уоu de-stress your life, уоu will еnjоу the bеnеfitѕ in other аrеаѕ аѕ well. Exercise is one оf thе bеѕt аnti-ѕtrеѕѕ mеdiсinеѕ аrоund. Juѕt put ѕоmе headphones оn, tunе in tо ѕоmе rеlаxing muѕiс, and go fоr a wаlk. You will bе amazed аt hоw gооd it makes уоu fееl.

Yоu’vе heard it before: drink рlеntу of wаtеr. Thеrе iѕ a rеаѕоn that drinking plenty оf wаtеr is rесоmmеndеd over аnd оvеr again. Our bodies nееd wаtеr tо ѕurvivе. Fоr a healthy diеt, you must рrоvidе уоur bоdу with three or four eight-оunсе glаѕѕеѕ a day. Givе it a trу аnd ѕее if it dоеѕn’t make you feel better. Don’t wеаr tight fitting сlоthеѕ. Tight fitting сlоthеѕ рut unduе pressure on thе аbdоminаl аrеа and inсrеаѕе the асid rеflux levels in уоur body. Thеу may lооk good, but уоu аrеn’t dоing yourself any favors by wеаring thеm. Dесidе fоr соmfоrt аnd аn еnd to acid rеflux over fаѕhiоn. It’ѕ wеll wоrth thе соѕt.

Keep аwау frоm аlсоhоl and ѕоdа. Thеѕе beverages are еxtrеmеlу hаrd оn thе ѕtоmасh. Stick with water fоr your beverage оf сhоiсе. Yоur bоdу will thаnk уоu for it. Bеѕidеѕ, thеу оffеr absolutely nо nutritiоnаl vаluе аnd оnlу ѕеrvе tо саuѕе hаrm. Chесk to mаkе ѕurе that thе fruit juiсеѕ уоu сhооѕе are not acidic. Read thе ingrеdiеntѕ on everything уоu соnѕumе, inсluding your bеvеrаgеѕ. Wаtеr ѕhоuld оnlу have оnе ingrеdiеnt on itѕ label: water. Smoking inсrеаѕеѕ thе timе it tаkеѕ fоr уоur stomach tо digеѕt fооd. Thiѕ iѕ nоt a good thing for acid rеflux. Quitting ѕmоking оffеrѕ mаnу health bеnеfitѕ, including helping with аn асid rеflux рrоblеm. Dо it for уоur lungѕ аnd your stomach.

Thеrе аrе mаnу things you can dо tо hеlр your асid rеflux diѕеаѕе. Thеѕе mеthоdѕ аrе completely undеr уоur соntrоl аnd dоn’t rеԛuirе a doctor’s рrеѕсriрtiоn. Try them today!

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8-Year-Old Girl, Whose Famous Case Changed the Surrogacy Process, Dies Weeks After Her Birthday


The little girl whose story went viral because her surrogate mother refused to have an abortion has died just weeks after her eighth birthday.

On July 15, Seraphina Harrell died in the hospital after suffering a "combination of complications from a needed surgery and infection," according to her obituary.

Crystal Kelly, Seraphina's surrogate mother, made headlines in 2012 for turning down an abortion after finding out that the child had multiple severe birth defects at an ultrasound appointment halfway through her pregnancy, CNN reported.

The couple who hired Kelley offered her $10,000 to terminate the pregnancy, however, Kelley refused and moved from Connecticut to Michigan to become Seraphina's legal parent.

Kelley's decision to continue the pregnancy introduced an important conversation to the surrogacy industry, one that now makes sure that surrogates and couples agree on how to proceed with a pregnancy should the fetus show abnormalities.

"People heard about this case, and they got scared about skipping steps. That's good for the industry," Melissa Brisman, an attorney who specializes in surrogacy, told CNN.

She added: "What happened in this case is less likely to happen today. It could still happen, but it's less likely."

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Rene Harrell, Seraphina's adopted mother, told the outlet that the conflict surrounding Seraphina's birth was whether or not she'd have a "meaningful life" despite her special needs.

Seraphina was born with heterotaxy syndrome, which left many of her internal organs out of place, as well as a brain malformation called holoprosencephaly. She also had multiple heart defects and two non-working spleens.

Regardless of her physical disabilities, Harrell assured CNN "without hesitation" that Seraphina had a "very meaningful and happy life."

"What I heard over and over from so many of her doctors was they could never imagine that someone with Seraphina's level of need could do as well as she did or be as joyful as she was," Harrell added.

In her eight years, Seraphina formed close bonds with her seven older brothers and sisters and both of her parents, CNN reported.

Seraphina was the "centering part of our family," Harrell said. "She was our heart and soul."

"For the eight years she lived, she had a full life," her father, Thomas Harrell, added. "She had a lot of joy in her life and gave a lot of other people joy in ways that sometimes weren't expected."

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Study shows liver injury is common and prognostic in COVID-19 patients

Researchers from the Faculty of Medicine at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CU Medicine) have recently conducted a study to investigate the impact of liver injury on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Data from over 1,000 COVID-19 patients in Hong Kong was analysed and liver injury was found in around 20% of the patients. The estimated risk of COVID-19 patients with liver injury experiencing adverse clinical outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation or death was almost eight times of other patients. It is suggested that liver function monitoring is important regarding its association with adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. These findings have been published recently in the world-renowned medical journal Gut. In view of the high prevalence of various chronic liver diseases in the Asia-Pacific region, CU Medicine’s researchers led a group of experts from Mainland China, Japan, Singapore and Australia to issue a position statement on the management of COVID-19 patients with liver derangement. The statement has been published recently in another international medical journal The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

About 20% of COVID-19 patients in Hong Kong were found to have liver injury

Liver injury, in the form of hepatitis, cholestasis or both, can be observed in patients infected by different coronaviruses. For the territory-wide study in Gut, researchers from CU Medicine analysed the data from 1,040 COVID-19 patients in Hong Kong. It was found that the level of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was elevated in 23% of the COVID-19 patients, which indicated liver damage.

An association between liver injury and the chance of adverse clinical outcomes was also identified. Overall, 53 (5.1%) were admitted to ICU, 22 (2.1%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (0.4%) died. Among them, 71% had liver injury. The analysis indicated that the estimated risk of patients with liver injury having adverse clinical outcomes is eight times of others.

First author of the study, Dr. Terry Cheuk Fung YIP, post-doctoral fellow of the Department of Medicine and Therapeutics at CU Medicine, explained, “Our study shows that liver injury was common in COVID-19 patients. Although the exact impact of the novel virus on the liver has not been well elucidated so far, our findings proved that the chance of patients with liver injury having adverse clinical outcomes is obviously higher than that of others. This shows that liver injury is prognostically significant in COVID-19 patients.”

Professor Grace Lai Hung WONG, Professor, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics at CU Medicine, added, “Liver injury is possibly caused by systemic inflammation and adverse drug reactions in severe COVID-19 patients who have been receiving different medical treatments. As the degree of liver injury could be impacted by coexisting chronic hepatitis in patients, a thorough review of medical history and detailed investigation for concomitant liver diseases are crucial to improve patient outcomes.”

Furthermore, cautious use of appropriate medications with least hepatotoxicity as well as vigilant monitoring of liver biochemistries are recommended in order to minimise liver injury in COVID-19 patients.

As the pandemic continues and CU Medicine’s study has proved that the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients is closely related to liver health, it would be clinically helpful to provide practice recommendations for various common clinical scenarios of liver derangement, especially in the Asia-Pacific region where the prevalence of liver diseases is the highest worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, liver diseases caused 4.6% of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region in 2015, compared with 2.7% in the U.S. and 2.1% in Europe.

In response to this utmost need, the Asia-Pacific Working Group for Liver Derangement, led by the hepatologists from CU Medicine, published an Asia-Pacific position statement in June this year on the management of COVID-19 patients who have been or are at risk of developing liver derangement. Clinical scenarios covered in the statement included the precautions for the use of pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 in patients with liver derangement, for example liver test should be conducted twice weekly in patients on potentially hepatotoxic medication, those with pre-existent liver disease, and more frequently in any patients with abnormal liver function.

The statement also proposed the assessment and management of patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and liver transplantation during the pandemic.

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Scientists discover novel drug target for pancreatic cancer

Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have uncovered a novel drug target, a protein called PPP1R1B, that stops the deadly spread of pancreatic cancer, called metastasis, when inhibited in mice. Published in Gastroenterology, the findings are a first step toward a potential treatment for one of the deadliest cancers known today.

“Our study uncovers a protein, called PPP1R1B, that is completely new to pancreatic cancer researchers and that drives tumor metastasis, the major reason the cancer is so lethal,” says Anindya Bagchi, Ph.D., associate professor in the Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program at Sanford Burnham Prebys and senior author of the study. “With this proof-of-concept data, we can start drug screens that identify an inhibitor of PPP1R1B, which, if successful, may help more people survive pancreatic cancer.”

Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers: Fewer than 10% of people with this type of cancer remain alive five years later. The tumor is difficult to detect because symptoms often don’t appear until the disease has already metastasized. However, if the tumor is contained in the pancreas, the five-year survival rate increases to nearly 40%, according to the American Cancer Society. For unknown reasons, pancreatic cancer is on the rise and predicted to become the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. by 2030.

A surprising finding

In the study, the scientists set out to understand how pancreatic cancer responds to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). Cancer researchers have long wondered how pancreatic cancers are able to thrive in such a harsh environment—and speculated that increased production of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A), a gene triggered by hypoxia, can stimulate tumor growth. Drugs that inhibit HIF1A are being explored for many hypoxic cancers, but until now the protein’s role in pancreatic cancer was unclear—presenting a hurdle to clinical trials evaluating these potentially promising drugs.

As a first step, the scientists created mice with pancreatic tumors that do not produce HIF1A. They expected that removing this protein would be beneficial and allow the mice to become cancer free. However, to their surprise, these mice had more aggressive tumors—with more invasion into nearby organs, greater metastasis and shorter survival times.

“Our original hypothesis was that if we remove HIF1A, a supposed driver of tumor survival, growth should be delayed or we should be curing the cancer,” says Bagchi. “Instead, we got the exact opposite results. When we saw this, we knew that we may have hit something really interesting, and needed to nail down exactly why we are seeing this effect.”

New drug target revealed

Digging deeper, the scientists discovered that these mice had increased levels of a protein called PPP1R1B. When they removed the gene that codes for this protein, the mice had fewer metastases—suggesting that a drug that inhibits the protein would stop pancreatic cancer from spreading.

“Our data also showed that tumor samples from people with metastatic pancreatic cancer had increased levels of PPP1R1B, adding further evidence that the protein has therapeutic potential,” says Ashutosh Tiwari, Ph.D., postdoctoral associate in the Bagchi lab at Sanford Burnham Prebys and first and co-lead author of the study. “Elevated levels of PPP1R1B have also been found in colon, lung and prostate cancers, and might also be seen in other hypoxic tumors, so an inhibitor may have benefits beyond pancreatic cancer.”

Next, the scientists plan to start drug screens that seek to identify compounds that inhibit PPP1R1B. These activities will take place at the Institute’s Conrad Prebys Center for Chemical Genomics, one of the most advanced drug discovery centers in the nonprofit world.

“The path to a successful treatment for pancreatic cancer begins with a strong scientific understanding of what is driving the tumor’s growth and aggressiveness,” says Lynn Matrisian, Ph.D., chief science officer at the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN), who wasn’t involved in the study. “This study has uncovered a promising drug target that, following additional research, may one day result in a treatment that helps more people fight the world’s toughest cancer.”

A team effort

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How to lose visceral fat – the ‘most important’ way to get rid of your belly fat

Visceral fat can be extremely harmful in large quantities, and it raises your chances of developing a number of conditions. But, doing aerobic exercises may help to get rid of your belly fat.

Visceral fat is more commonly known as belly fat, and it tends to wrap around your internal organs.

It’s considered a serious health problem to be carrying too much visceral fat.

That’s because the fat cells produce inflammatory markers and hormones, that increases the risk of chronic diseases.

One of the best ways to reduce your belly fat is to regularly do aerobic exercises.

Aerobic exercises are arguably the most important thing you can do to get rid of your visceral fat, according to John Hopkins Medicine.

It helps to raise your heart rate, which forces the body to use energy.

The body subsequently uses fat as a way to fuel your exercise, starting with excess visceral fat around your organs.

The best types of aerobic exercises including jogging, swimming and cycling.

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“Exercise is the key to fighting deep belly fat,” said the university.

“Add aerobic exercise as part of your way of life. This may be the most important thing you can do.

“It reduces the fat around your belly. Keep in mind that moderate exercise works the best.

“Check with your doctor before you start a new exercise plan. See your doctor first if you have not exercised before.”

You can use the ‘talk test’ to reveal whether you’re exercising hard enough to lose your belly fat, it added.

While exercising, you should be able to talk relatively comfortably.

But, you shouldn’t be able to sing at the top of your voice – that’s a sign that you’re working too hard.

You’re aiming for a “moderate” intensity workout, which will work all of the body’s muscles for a prolonged period of time.

Visceral fat starts to cause health problems straight away.

It increases your risk of developing serious, long-term life-threatening medical conditions, including heart disease, high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and strokes.

You should consider speaking to a doctor if your waist is more than 40 inches for men, or 35 inches for women.

Your GP will discuss the health risks of belly fat, as well as some lifestyle changes to get rid of it.

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